Gas Chromatography

Chromatography is the name of a process used to detach chemical substances and varies based on different partitioning actions between a stationary phase and a flowing mobile phase for detaching elements in a mix.

The sample is transported by a stream of moving gas through a tube that is filled with evenly separated solid, or could be coated with a liquid film. Gas chromatography is one of the most vital tools in chemistry because of its simplicity, highly effective nature, and sensitivity. It is most frequently used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures, to purify compounds, and to determine certain thermochemical constants.

Gas chromatography is additionally widely utilized in the automatic monitoring of industrial processes. Take, as an example, gas streams that are often analyzed and adjusted with manual or automatic responses to cancel out undesirable differences.

There are a number of routine analyses that are performed quickly in environmental and other fields of the like. For instance, there exist many countries with certain monitor points that are used as a means of continuously measuring emission levels of gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxides. Additionally, gas chromatography can be employed in analyzing pharmaceutical products.

The technique for gas chromatography starts with introducing the test mixture into a stream of inert gas, usually a gas that works as a carrier gas such as argon or helium. Samples that are in the liquid state are first vaporized before being injected into the stream of carrier gases. Next, the gas stream passes through the packed column that contains elements of the sample moving at speeds that are determined by the level of interaction between each constituent with the stationary nonvolatile phase. Those pieces that have a more significant interaction with the stationary phase are slowed more and thus separate from those with a less significant interaction. As these components begin to be wiped out of the column with a solvent, they can be measeured by a detector and/or kept for additional analysis.

There are two prevalent types of gas chromatography: gas-solid chromatography (GSC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The first, gas-solid chromatography, is centered around the solid stationary phase, during which retention of analytes occurs as a result of physical adsorption. Gas-liquid chromatography is often employed when detaching ions that can be dissolved in a solvent. If it comes into contact with a second solid or liquid phase, the different solutes in the sample solution will interact with the other phase to certain degrees that can change based on differences in adsorption, exchange of ions, partitioning or size. These variations give the mixture components the ability to separate from each other when they use these difference to change their transport times of the solutes through a column.

Gas Chromatography with Carrier Gases

When deciding upon a carrier gas, the selection depends on the type of detector being used and the elements that are being determined. Carrier gases used in chromatographs should be highly pure and chemically inert towards the sample. In order to eliminate water or other impurities, the carrier gas system may have a molecular sieve.

The most prominent injection systems used to introduce gas samples are the gas sampling valve and injection via syringe. Both liquid and gas samples have the ability to be injected with a syringe. When in its most simple form, the sample is at the start injected into and vaporized in a heated chamber, then moved to the column. When packed columns are employed, the first section of the column is most often employed as an injection chamber and warmed to a proper temperature separately. With capillary columns a small sectionvof the vaporized sample is transferred to the column from a separate injection chamber; this is referred to as split-injection. This technique is utilized when attempting to keep the sample volume from overloading the column.

A method called on-column injection can be employed for capillary gas chromatography when trace measures could be found in the sample. In on-column injection, the liquid sample injected with a syringe immediately into the column. Later, the solvent has the ability to evaporate and a concentration of the sample components occurs. In gas samples, the concentration is made by a technique referred to as cryo focusing. In this process, the sample components are concentrated and divided from the matrix by condensation in a cold-trap prior to the chromatography process.

Finally, there is also a process referred to as loop-injection, and it is often used in process control where liquid or gas samples flow continuously through the sample loop. The sample loop is filled with a syringe or an automatic pump in an off-line position. Afterwards, the sample is transported from the loop to the column by the mobile phase, sometimes including a concentration step.

Whether you’re searching for specialty gases to be used in gas chromatography, or any other industry that utilizes specialty gases, PurityPlus has a wide variety of specialty gas products to meet your need. We have a large selection of specialty gases and specialty gas equipment, along with the resources and experts on hand to provide assistance in any areas you may need. For additional information, browse our online catalog or via email at or at 503-235-0168.